In rural areas, research on the environment in native (untaught) soils is important to understand the rate of pedogenesis and to prevent the problems associated with hidden huger. In this article, original data on vegetation, chemical properties and elemental and mineralogical composition of Kastanozems (Protosalic, Siltic) and Hypersalic Solonetz (Siltic) of the small gully catchment (2 ha in total) located at the NE Ergeni Upland (Western Kalmykia, Russia) were presented. Vegetation was described and cut off (to characterize an aboveground biomass) at 13 key plots of 1 × 1 m. The list of species of the small gully catchment area amounts to 23 species (predominantly, perennial herbs) belonging to 13 families and 11 orders. The main dominants are Artemisia lerchiana, A. austriaca, Festuca valesiaca and Poa bulbosa. Soils were described and sampled in 11 cross-sections and two key plots (0 – 10 cm topsoil sampling). In soil water extracts (79 samples in total), electrical conductivity (EC) and pH were measured. In soil samples, particle size distribution, soil organic carbon and CaCO3 contents, total concentration of all the macro elements, some trace (Cl, Nb, Rb, Th, Y, Zr) and potentially toxic elements (As, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sr, V, and Zn) were described. Moreover, the concentration of three mobile fractions of elements (Li, Be, B, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Ba, Cd, Pb) measured using Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (AES-ICP) was presented. Geochemical indexes of weathering (R – Silica/Alumina, CIW – Chemical Index of Weathering, CIA – Chemical Index of Alteration, WIP – Weathering Index of Parker, PWI -Product of Weathering Index, Vogt Ratio, PIA – Plagioclase Index of Alteration, STI – Silica-Titanium Index, B/A – Bases/Alumina, B/R – Bases/R2O3, Si/R – Silica/R2O3, Weathering indexes WI-1 and WI-2, Si/Ses – Silica/Sesquioxides, Si/Fe – Silica/Iron, a – Potassium/Sodium, ba-1 – (Potassium-Sodium)/Alumina, ba-2 – (Calcium-Magnesium)/Alumina, Ba – (Potassium-Sodium-Calcium)/Alumina) were calculated. In 12 bulk soil samples from Kastanozems and Solonetz, mineralogy (X-Ray diffractometry, the Rietveld full-pattern fitting method for quantitative analysis) was described. Data obtained can be used for more confident identification of pollution sources and pollutants’ migration routes, as well as for more effective land-use management, calculating the required doses of nutrients and for adaptation of land use.