Demonstration of doxorubicin’s cardiotoxicity and screening using a 3D bioprinted spheroidal droplet-based system

RSC Adv. 2023 Mar 13;13(12):8338-8351. doi: 10.1039/d3ra00421j. eCollection 2023 Mar 8.


Doxorubicin (DOX) is a highly effective anthracycline chemotherapy agent effective in treating a broad range of life-threatening malignancies but it causes cardiotoxicity in many subjects. While the mechanism of its cardiotoxic effects remains elusive, DOX-related cardiotoxicity can lead to heart failure in patients. In this study, we investigated the effects of DOX-induced cardiotoxicity on human cardiomyocytes (CMs) using a three-dimensional (3D) bioprinted cardiac spheroidal droplet based-system in comparison with the traditional two-dimensional cell (2D) culture model. The effects of DOX were alleviated with the addition of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and Tiron. Caspase-3 activity was quantified, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was measured using dihydroethidium (DHE) staining. Application of varying concentrations of DOX (0.4 μM-1 μM) to CMs revealed a dose-specific response, with 1 μM concentration imposing maximum cytotoxicity and 0.22 ± 0.11% of viable cells in 3D samples versus 1.02 ± 0.28% viable cells in 2D cultures, after 5 days of culture. Moreover, a flow cytometric analysis study was conducted to study CMs proliferation in the presence of DOX and antioxidants. Our data support the use of a 3D bioprinted cardiac spheroidal droplet as a robust and high-throughput screening model for drug toxicity. In the future, this 3D spheroidal droplet model can be adopted as a human-derived tissue-engineered equivalent to address challenges in other various aspects of biomedical pre-clinical research.

PMID:36922946 | PMC:PMC10010162 | DOI:10.1039/d3ra00421j


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