Heliyon. 2023 Jan 9;9(2):e12810. doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2023.e12810. eCollection 2023 Feb.
Water is a critical component for humans to survive, especially in arid lands or areas where fresh water is scarce. Hence, desalination is an excellent way to effectuate the increasing water demand. Membrane distillation (MD) technology entails a membrane-based non-isothermal prominent process used in various applications, for instance, water treatment and desalination. It is operable at low temperature and pressure, from which the heat demand for the process can be sustainably sourced from renewable solar energy and waste heat. In MD, the water vapors are gone through the membrane’s pores and condense at permeate side, rejecting dissolved salts and non-volatile substances. However, the efficacy of water and biofouling are the main challenges for MD due to the lack of appropriate and versatile membrane. Numerous researchers have explored different membrane composites to overcome the above-said issue, and attempt to develop efficient, elegant, and biofouling-resistant novel membranes for MD. This review article addresses the 21st-century water crises, desalination technologies, principles of MD, the different properties of membrane composites alongside compositions and modules of membranes. The desired membrane characteristics, MD configurations, role of electrospinning in MD, characteristics and modifications of membranes used for MD are also highlighted in this review.
PMID:36793956 | PMC:PMC9922933 | DOI:10.1016/j.heliyon.2023.e12810