RSC Adv. 2023 Sep 5;13(38):26563-26573. doi: 10.1039/d3ra03585a. eCollection 2023 Sep 4.
Development of energetic catalysts with high energy density and strong catalytic activity has become the focus and frontier of research, which is expected to improve the combustion performance and ballistic properties of solid propellants. In this work, three energetic catalysts, M(H2O)4(AFCA)2·H2O (AFCA = 3-aminofurazan-4-carboxylic acid, M = Cu, Co, Fe), are designed and synthesized based on the coordination reaction of transition metal ions and the energetic ligand. The target products are characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential thermal analysis, optical microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The results reveal that Cu(H2O)4(AFCA)2·H2O crystallizes in the monoclinic space group, Dc = 1.918 g cm-3. Co(H2O)4(AFCA)2·H2O, and Fe(H2O)4(AFCA)2·H2O belong to orthorhombic space groups, their density is 1.886 g cm-3 and 1.856 g cm-3, respectively. In addition, the designed catalysts show higher catalytic activity than some reported catalysts such as Co(en)(H2BTI)2]2·en (H3BTI = 4,5-bis(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)-1H-imida-zole), Co-AzT (H2AzT = 5,5′-azotetrazole-1,1′-diol), and [Pb(BTF)(H2O)2]n (BTF = 4,4′-oxybis [3,3′-(1-hydroxy-tetrazolyl)]furazan) for the thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate (AP). The high-temperature decomposition peak temperatures of AP/Cu(H2O)4(AFCA)2·H2O, AP/Co(H2O)4(AFCA)2·H2O, and AP/Fe(H2O)4 (AFCA)2·H2O are decreased by 120.3 °C, 151.8 °C and 89.5 °C compared to the case of pure AP, while the heat release of them are increased by 768.8 J g-1, 780.5 J g-1, 750.9 J g-1, respectively. Moreover, the burning rates of solid propellants composed of AP/Cu(AFCA)2(H2O)4·H2O, AP/Co(AFCA)2(H2O)4·H2O and AP/Fe(AFCA)2(H2O)4·H2O are increased by 2.16 mm s-1, 2.53 mm s-1, and 1.57 mm s-1 compared with the case of pure AP. This research shows considerable application prospects in improving the combustion and energy performance of solid propellants, it is also a reference for the design and preparation of other novel energetic catalysts.