Vet World. 2023;16(7):1468-1476. doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2023.1468-1476. Epub 2023 Jul 19.
BACKGROUND AND AIM: To meet domestic demand for meat, Indonesia imports live cattle from Australia, which have non-bovine viral diarrhea (BVD)-free status. The consequence of importing live cattle from Australia is potentially introducing a novel BVD variant to Indonesia. Therefore, detecting BVD early and determining the agent’s characteristics and clinical symptoms are necessary. This study aimed to detect and characterize clinical symptoms of bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) and highlight the importance of farm management as a risk factor for the spread of BVD. This study aimed to provide information about the effectiveness of preventive measures against BVD in Australian-imported cattle at the Tanjung Priok Seaport Agricultural Quarantine. Bovine viral diarrhea is among the most common diarrheal diseases found in feedlots and is a severe health and economic problem in cattle.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: All cattle in a selected feedlot were examined for clinical symptoms on their first day of arrival. The sampling criteria included age, body weight, body temperature (BT), animal breath (AB), pulse (PL), conjunctivitis (CJ), hyperlacrimation (HL), hypersalivation (HS), DR, fever, limping leg (LL), emaciation, stomatitis (ST), weakness (WK), and coronitis (CR). In addition, 64 blood samples were taken from cattle that exhibited clinical symptoms of BVD. On the 3rd day of arrival, a blood sample showing positive clinical symptoms was examined using antigen (Ag)-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The data from these clinical symptoms were analyzed alongside the laboratory results using multidimensional scale analysis, heatmap distribution, and principal component analysis (PCA). Furthermore, the positive serum samples obtained from the Ag-capture ELISA underwent a nested multiplex polymerase chain reaction and molecular detection and genetic characterization of BVDV based on the 5′ untranslated region of the viral genome, followed by sequence and phylogenetic tree analyses.
RESULTS: Using PCA, 12 clinical symptom characteristics of BVD were determined from 13 clinical symptoms synergized with five cattle positive for Ag-capture ELISA. The clinical symptoms included internal factors such as physiological conditions of CJ, HL, HS, DR, BT, LL, loss of appetite, ST, WK, CR, AB, and PL. The screening test showed that five samples tested positive for the BVD Ag, while 59 tested negative. Phylogenetic tree analysis using a 360-nucleotide portion of the NS5B gene showed that Sample B23F5R had a distinct path compared to the other two samples in the phylogenetic diagram. The profile of sample B23F5R was closely related to BVDV reference subgenotype 1-a group (NCBI, access no. LC068605), with a homology percentage of 92.36%. Furthermore, this sample was similar to the BVDV reference 1-a, Strain 12, identified in Japan. The other two samples, B13F5R and A13F5R, showed close resemblance to the BVDV reference subgenotype 1-a that had been previously identified in Indonesia (NCBI, access no. MK411755), with homology percentages of 97.81% and 97.75%, respectively.
CONCLUSION: The BVDV-1a strain is the main subtype present in beef cattle imported from Australia to West Java, Indonesia. The characteristics of clinical symptoms associated with BVD infection comprised 12 symptoms synergized with the positive sample in the PCA. The present results can facilitate the development of preventive and control measures for BVD circulation in Indonesia.