Development of a new critical size defect model in the paranasal sinus and first approach for defect reconstruction-An in vivo maxillary bone defect study in sheep

J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2022 Oct 20;33(11):76. doi: 10.1007/s10856-022-06698-9.

ABSTRACT

Fractures of the paranasal sinuses often require surgical intervention. Persisting bone defects lead to permanent visible deformities of the facial contours. Bone substitutes for reconstruction of defects with simultaneous induction of new bone formation are not commercially available for the paranasal sinus. New materials are urgently needed and have to be tested in their future area of application. For this purpose critical size defect models for the paranasal sinus have to be developed. A ≥2.4 cm large bilateral circular defect was created in the anterior wall of the maxillary sinus in six sheep via an extraoral approach. The defect was filled with two types of an osteoconductive titanium scaffold (empty scaffold vs. scaffold filled with a calcium phosphate bone cement paste) or covered with a titanium mesh either. Sheep were euthanized after four months. All animals performed well, no postoperative complications occured. Meshes and scaffolds were safely covered with soft tissue at the end of the study. The initial defect size of ≥2.4 cm only shrunk minimally during the investigation period confirming a critical size defect. No ingrowth of bone into any of the scaffolds was observed. The anterior wall of the maxillary sinus is a region with low complication rate for performing critical size defect experiments in sheep. We recommend this region for experiments with future scaffold materials whose intended use is not only limited to the paranasal sinus, as the defect is challenging even for bone graft substitutes with proven osteoconductivity. Graphical abstract.

PMID:36264396 | PMC:PMC9584845 | DOI:10.1007/s10856-022-06698-9

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