Biomass Convers Biorefin. 2023 Jan 6:1-18. doi: 10.1007/s13399-022-03722-4. Online ahead of print.
High moisture in Chinese medicine residues (CMR) can decrease the energy efficiency of thermochemical conversion, which necessitates the pre-drying. Owing to the complex constituents and decoction, CMR may possess distinct drying characteristics. It is necessary to understand its drying behaviors, effective moisture diffusivity, and pollutant emissions for future design and optimization of an industrial-level dryer. In this study, the drying of four types of typical CMR in hot nitrogen was performed. Their condensate and exhaust gas were collected and characterized. The results indicated that their drying process was dominated by internal moisture transport mechanism with a long falling rate stage. Drying temperature influenced their drying process more greatly than N2 velocity did. Residual sum of squares, root mean square error, and coefficient of determination indicated that Weibull model demonstrated their drying process best. Their effective moisture diffusivity was in the range of 1.224 × 10-8 to 4.868 × 10-8 m2/s, while their drying activation energy ranged from 16.93 to 30.39 kJ/mol. The acidic condensate had high chemical oxygen demand and total nitrogen concentration and yet low total phosphorus concentration. The concentration of total volatile organic compounds, non-methane hydrocarbons, H2S, and NH3 in the exhaust gas met the national emission limitation, while the deodorization of exhaust gas was required to remove odor smell.
SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s13399-022-03722-4.