Effect of calcium hydroxide on morphology and physicochemical properties of Enterococcus faecalis biofilm

Sci Rep. 2022 May 9;12(1):7595. doi: 10.1038/s41598-022-11780-x.


Calcium hydroxide Ca(OH)2 has been used as an intracanal medicament to targets microbial biofilms and avert secondary infection in the root canal system. This study evaluated the effects of this material on the morphology and physicochemical properties of an established in-vitro biofilm of Enterococcus faecalis. A biofilm of E. faecalis was grown in multichannel plates. The chemicals including Ca2+, OH-, and saturated Ca(OH)2 (ie 21.6 mM) were prepared in order to evaluate which component eradicated or amplified biofilm structure. Various biochemical and microscopic methods were used to investigate the properties of the biofilm. Biofilms treated with Ca(OH)2 absorbed more Ca2+ because of the alkaline pH of the environment and the ions affected the physicochemical properties of the E. faecalis biofilm. A denser biofilm with more cavities and a granular surface was observed in the presence of Ca2+ ions. This resulted in a decrease in the surface-to-biofilm ratio with increases in its biomass, thickness, colony size, and volume. Calcium hydroxide did not destroy E. faecalis biofilms but rather contributed to the biofilm structure. This in-vitro study sheds light on a missing link in the formation of E. faecalis biofilm in which the Ca2+ in Ca(OH)2.

PMID:35534609 | DOI:10.1038/s41598-022-11780-x


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