Sci Rep. 2022 Oct 29;12(1):18240. doi: 10.1038/s41598-022-23027-w.
Over centuries different elements have been developed in architectures for ensuring adequate natural ventilation in residential units. This study assesses the different components of an ancient windmill in Sistan, Iran, on the structure’s indoor air quality (IAQ) enhancement. Several climatic scenarios have been defined by the wind analysis of Sistan meteorological data and analyzed by CFD. The site measurements confirm the accuracy of the simulation results. In the windmill, two deflectors facing the prevailing wind are the significant elements which, in addition to directing wind toward the entrance, could form vortices near the east and west openings leading to suction ventilation. Alteration of the wind speed and angle from 10 to 15 m/s and 30° to 17° would increase the air change per hour (ACH) by 150% and 110%, respectively. Meanwhile, the ACHs were higher than the ASHRAE desired level (ACH > 0.35).