J Funct Biomater. 2022 Nov 16;13(4):247. doi: 10.3390/jfb13040247.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of the titanium nanotube diameter and the effect of silicon carbide (SiC) coating on the proliferation and mineralization of pre-osteoblasts on titanium nanostructured surfaces. Anodized titanium sheets with nanotube diameters of 50 and 100 nm were used. The following four groups were tested in the study: (1) non-coated 50 nm nanotubes; (2) SiC-coated 50 nm titanium nanotubes; (3) non-coated 100 nm nanotubes and (4) SiC-coated 100 nm nanotubes. The biocompatibility and cytotoxicity of pre-osteoblasts were evaluated using a CellTiter-BlueCell Viability assay after 1, 2, and 3 days. After 3 days, cells attached to the surface were observed by SEM. Pre-osteoblast mineralization was determined using Alizarin-Red staining solution after 21 days of cultivation. Data were analyzed by a Kruskal-Wallis test at a p-value of 0.05. The results evidenced biocompatibility and non-cytotoxicity of both 50 and 100 nm diameter coated and non-coated surfaces after 1, 2 and 3 days. The statistical analysis indicates a statistically significant higher cell growth at 3 days (p < 0.05). SEM images after 3 days demonstrated flattened-shaped cells without any noticeable difference in the phenotypes between different diameters or surface treatments. After 21 days of induced osteogenic differentiation, the statistical analysis indicates significantly higher osteoblast calcification on coated groups of both diameters when compared with non-coated groups (p < 0.05). Based on these results, we can conclude that the titanium nanotube diameter did not play any role on cell viability or mineralization of pre-osteoblasts on SiC-coated or non-coated titanium nanotube sheets. The SiC coating demonstrated biocompatibility and non-cytotoxicity and contributed to an increase in osteoblast mineralization on titanium nanostructured surfaces when compared to non-coated groups.