Effect of titanium dioxide on Streptococcus mutans biofilm

J Appl Biomater Funct Mater. 2023 Jan-Dec;21:22808000221131892. doi: 10.1177/22808000221131892.


BACKGROUND: Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) participates in the dental caries process. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles produce reactive oxygen species capable of disrupting bacterial DNA synthesis by creating pores in cell walls and membranes.

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of TiO2 on the disruption of S. mutans biofilm.

METHODS: This study was conducted in four phases involving a TiO2-containing toothbrush and TiO2 nanoparticles. Each phase was completed using 24 h established S. mutans biofilm growth. Phase one data was collected through a bacterial plating study, assessing biofilm viability. Biofilm mass was evaluated in phase two of the study by measuring S. mutans biofilm grown on microtiter plates following crystal violet staining. The third phase of the study involved a generalized oxygen radical assay to determine the relative amount of oxygen radicals released intracellularly. Phase four of the study included the measurement of insoluble glucan/extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) synthesis using a phenol-sulfuric acid assay.

RESULTS: Both exposure time and time intervals had a significant effect on bacterial viability counts (p = 0.0323 and p = 0.0014, respectively). Bacterial counts after 6 min of exposure were significantly lower than after 2 min (p = 0.034), compared to the no treatment control (p = 0.0056). As exposure time increased, the amount of remaining biofilm mass was statistically lower than the no treatment control. Exposure time had a significant effect on oxygen radical production. Both the 30 and 100 nm TiO2 nanoparticles had a significant effect on bacterial mass. The silver nanoparticles and the 30 and 100 nm TiO2 nanoparticles significantly inhibited EPS production.

CONCLUSION: The TiO2-containing toothbrush kills, disrupts, and produces oxygen radicals that disrupt established S. mutans biofilm. TiO2 and silver nanoparticles inhibit EPS production and reduce biofilm mass. The addition of TiO2 to dental products may be effective in reducing cariogenic dental biofilm.

PMID:37051725 | DOI:10.1177/22808000221131892


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