PLoS One. 2023 Aug 16;18(8):e0289935. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0289935. eCollection 2023.
Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) are dangerous parasites of many crops worldwide. The threat of chemical nematicides has led to increasing interest in studying the inhibitory effects of organic amendments and bacteria on plant-parasitic nematodes, but their combination has been less studied. One laboratory and four glasshouse experiments were conducted to study the effect on M. javanica of animal manure, common vermicompost, shrimp shells, chitosan, compost and vermicompost from castor bean, chinaberry and arugula, and the combination of arugula vermicompost with some bacteria, isolated from vermicompost or earthworms. The extract of arugula compost and vermicompost, common vermicompost and composts from castor bean and chinaberry reduced nematode egg hatch by 12-32% and caused 13-40% mortality of second-stage juveniles in vitro. Soil amendments with the combination vermicompost of arugula + Pseudomonas. resinovorans + Sphingobacterium daejeonense + chitosan significantly increased the yield of infected tomato plants and reduced nematode reproduction factor by 63.1-76.6%. Comparison of chemical properties showed that arugula vermicompost had lower pH, EC, and C/N ratio than arugula compost. Metagenomics analysis showed that Bacillus, Geodermatophilus, Thermomonas, Lewinella, Pseudolabrys and Erythrobacter were the major bacterial genera in the vermicompost of arugula. Metagenomics analysis confirmed the presence of chitinolytic, detoxifying and PGPR bacteria in the vermicompost of arugula. The combination of arugula vermicompost + chitosan + P. resinovorans + S. daejeonense could be an environmentally friendly approach to control M. javanica.