Efficacy and side effects of bio-fabricated sardine fish scale silver nanoparticles against malarial vector Anopheles stephensi

Sci Rep. 2021 Oct 1;11(1):19567. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-98899-5.


Mosquitoes are a great menace for humankind since they transmit pathogenic organisms causing Malaria, Dengue, Chikungunya, Elephantiasis and Japanese encephalitis. There is an urgent need to discover new and novel biological tools to mitigate mosquito-borne diseases. To develop bioinsecticides through newly developed nanotechnology is another option in the present research scenario. In this study we synthesize and characterize sardine fish scales with silver nitrate by adopting various instrumental techniques such as UV- and FTIR-spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray (EDAX), X-ray diffraction analyses (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Toxicity bioassays were conducted with young developmental stages of mosquito vectors. Significant mortality appeared after different life stages of mosquito vectors (young larval and pupal instars were exposed to the nanomaterials). LC50 values were 13.261 ppm for young first instar larvae and 32.182 ppm for pupae. Feeding and predatory potential of G. affinis, before and after exposure to nanoparticles against mosquito larval (I & II) instars of the mosquitoes showed promising results in laboratory experiments. Feeding potential of mosquito fish without nanoparticle treatment was 79.7% and 70.55% for the first and second instar larval populations respectively. At the nanoparticle-exposed situation the predatory efficiency of mosquitofish was 94.15% and 84.3%, respectively. Antioxidant enzymes like (SOD), (CAT), and (LPO) were estimated in the gill region of sardine fish in control and experimental waters. A significant reduction of egg hatchability was evident after nanoparticle application. It became evident from this study that the nano-fabricated materials provide suitable tools to control the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi in the aquatic phase of its life cycle. This finding suggests an effective novel approach to mosquito control.

PMID:34599250 | DOI:10.1038/s41598-021-98899-5


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