Efficacy of chitosan paste as intracanal medication against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans biofilm compared with calcium hydroxide in an in vitro root canal infection model

BMC Oral Health. 2022 Aug 16;22(1):354. doi: 10.1186/s12903-022-02385-x.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans are frequently found in persistent endodontic infection and could remain in dentinal tubules despite intracanal medication with calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2), a commonly used medication. Thus, an effective and safe antimicrobial medication against such refractory infection is necessary in endodontic retreatment, so we aimed to test the efficacy of chitosan paste against these microorganisms compared with Ca(OH)2 in root canals of extracted human teeth.

METHODS: Thirty-six sterilized human root samples prepared from extracted premolars and upper maxillary incisors were infected with E. faecalis for 14 days, while 32 were infected with C. albicans for 48 h, for mature biofilm formation. The samples were assigned to 6 groups of intracanal medications: Group 1: no medication (negative control); Group 2: 20% Polyethylene glycol (PEG); Group 3: 20% Propylene glycol (PG); Group 4: Ca(OH)2; Group 5: Chitosan + PEG; and Group 6: Chitosan + PG. After 7 days, intracanal surface dentin was harvested using Protaper next, resuspended, serially diluted and spread on Brain-Heart-Infusion agar (for E. faecalis) and Yeast Extract-Peptone-Dextrose agar (for C. albicans) for colony count. Antimicrobial efficacy was determined as percentage of remaining colony forming unit (CFUs) relative to negative control and analyzed using One-way ANOVA and post-hoc Games-Howell test. The significance level was set at 0.05.

RESULTS: For E. faecalis, chitosan + PG had significantly higher antibacterial activity than Ca(OH)2 (P = 0.039). Chitosan + PEG and chitosan + PG medication significantly reduced viable bacteria compared with negative control, PEG and PG (P = 0.001, 0.003, 0.024, respectively for chitosan + PEG; P = 0.002, 0.003, 0.014, respectively for chitosan + PG). For C.albicans, chitosan + PEG and chitosan + PG were not significantly different from Ca(OH)2. However, Chitosan + PEG and chitosan + PG, but not Ca(OH)2, showed a significantly lower level of remaining CFUs compared with negative control (P = 0.013 and 0.005, respectively).

CONCLUSION: Chitosan paste showed better efficacy in reducing viable E. faecalis biofilm when compared to Ca(OH)2 after 7-day intracanal medication in this in vitro root canal model. It could also significantly reduce viable C. albicans, but was not significantly different from Ca(OH)2.

PMID:35974361 | PMC:PMC9382833 | DOI:10.1186/s12903-022-02385-x

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