Electro-organic green synthesis of dicyano-2-(2-oxoindolin-3-ylidene) malononitriles using molecular iodine as catalyst

RSC Adv. 2023 May 16;13(22):15024-15030. doi: 10.1039/d3ra02152a. eCollection 2023 May 15.


The first electrochemical molecular iodine promoted, domino reactions for the green synthesis of biologically relevant dicyano 2-(2-oxoindolin-3-ylidene) malononitriles (11 examples, up to 94% yield) from readily available isatin derivatives, malononitrile, and iodine at room temperature have been presented. This synthesis method showed tolerance towards various EDG and EWG and was completed in a short reaction time at the constant low current density of 5 mA cm-2 in the low redox potential range of -0.14 to 0.07 V. The present study exhibited by-product-free formation, easy operation, and product isolation. In particular the formation of a C[double bond, length as m-dash]C bond was observed at room temperature with a high atom economy. Furthermore, in the present study, the electrochemical behavior of dicyano 2-(2-oxoindolin-3-ylidene) malononitrile derivatives using a cyclic voltammetry (CV) technique in 0.1 M NaClO4 in acetonitrile solution was studied. All the chosen substituted isatin exhibited well-defined diffusion-controlled quasi-reversible redox peaks except 5-substituted derivatives. This synthesis could serve as an alternative strategy to synthesize other biologically important oxoindolin-3-ylidene malononitrile derivatives.

PMID:37207098 | PMC:PMC10189244 | DOI:10.1039/d3ra02152a


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