RSC Adv. 2023 Sep 4;13(38):26484-26508. doi: 10.1039/d3ra05098j. eCollection 2023 Sep 4.
In the present day, the incorporation of environmentally conscious practices in the realm of photocatalysis holds a prominent position within the domain of organic synthesis. The imperative to tackle environmental issues linked to catalysts that cannot be recycled, generation of waste, byproducts, and challenges in achieving reaction selectivity during organic synthesis are more crucial than ever. One potential solution involves the integration of recyclable nanomaterials with light as a catalyst, offering the possibility of achieving sustainable and atom-efficient transformations in organic synthesis. Metal oxide nanoparticles exhibit activation capabilities under UV light, constituting a small percentage (4-8%) of sunlight. However, this method lacks sufficient environmental friendliness, and the issue of electron-hole recombination poses a significant hurdle. To tackle these challenges, multiple approaches have been proposed. This comprehensive review article focuses on the efficacy of dyes in enhancing the capabilities of heterogeneous photocatalysts, offering a promising avenue to overcome the constraints associated with metal oxides in their role as photocatalysts. The article delves into the intricate design aspects of dye-sensitized photocatalysts and sheds light on their mechanisms in facilitating organic transformations.