J Mater Res. 2022 May 20:1-25. doi: 10.1557/s43578-022-00591-5. Online ahead of print.
Two-dimensional (2D) layered materials as a new class of nanomaterial are characterized by a list of exotic properties. These layered materials are investigated widely in several biomedical applications. A comprehensive understanding of the state-of-the-art developments of 2D materials designed for multiple nanoplatforms will aid researchers in various fields to broaden the scope of biomedical applications. Here, we review the advances in 2D material-based biomedical applications. First, we introduce the classification and properties of 2D materials. Next, we summarize surface and structural engineering methods of 2D materials where we discuss surface functionalization, defect, and strain engineering, and creating heterostructures based on layered materials for biomedical applications. After that, we discuss different biomedical applications. Then, we briefly introduced the emerging role of machine learning (ML) as a technological advancement to boost biomedical platforms. Finally, the current challenges, opportunities, and prospects on 2D materials in biomedical applications are discussed.