Nanomaterials (Basel). 2023 Aug 30;13(17):2455. doi: 10.3390/nano13172455.
Following the global spread of COVID-19, scientists and engineers have adapted technologies and developed new tools to aid in the fight against COVID-19. This review discusses various approaches to engineering biomaterials, devices, and therapeutics, especially at micro and nano levels, for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of infectious diseases, such as COVID-19, serving as a resource for scientists to identify specific tools that can be applicable for infectious-disease-related research, technology development, and treatment. From the design and production of equipment critical to first responders and patients using three-dimensional (3D) printing technology to point-of-care devices for rapid diagnosis, these technologies and tools have been essential to address current global needs for the prevention and detection of diseases. Moreover, advancements in organ-on-a-chip platforms provide a valuable platform to not only study infections and disease development in humans but also allow for the screening of more effective therapeutics. In addition, vaccines, the repurposing of approved drugs, biomaterials, drug delivery, and cell therapy are promising approaches for the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases. Following a comprehensive review of all these topics, we discuss unsolved problems and future directions.