Enhanced Cd Phytoextraction by Solanum nigrum L. from Contaminated Soils Combined with the Application of N Fertilizers and Double Harvests

Toxics. 2022 May 19;10(5):266. doi: 10.3390/toxics10050266.

ABSTRACT

It is very important to increase phytoremediation efficiency in practice in suitable climatic conditions for plant growth through multiple harvests. Solanum nigrum L. is a Cd hyperaccumulator. In the present experiment, after applying different types of N fertilizers (NH4HCO3, NH4Cl, (NH4)2SO4, CH4N2O), root and shoot biomasses and Cd phytoextraction efficiency of S. nigrum effectively improved (p < 0.05). Shoot biomasses of S. nigrum harvested at the first florescence stage plus the amounts at the second florescence stage were higher than those harvested at the maturation stage, which indicates that S. nigrum Cd phytoaccumulation efficiency was higher in the former compared to the latter as there was no clear change in Cd concentration (p < 0.05). The pH value and extractable Cd contents showed no changes, regardless of whether N fertilizer was added or not at different growth stages. In addition, after N fertilizer was applied, H2O2 and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in S. nigrum in vivo were lower compared to those that had not received N addition (CK); similarly, the concentration of proline was decreased as well (p < 0.05). The activity of the antioxidant enzyme catalase (CAT), harvested at different growth periods after four types of N fertilizer applications, obviously decreased in S. nigrum shoots, while peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase) (SOD) activities increased (p < 0.05). Our study demonstrated that (NH4)2SO4 treatment exerted the most positive effect and CH4N2O the second most positive effect on S. nigrum Cd phytoremediation efficiency in double harvests at florescence stages, and the growth conditions were better than others.

PMID:35622679 | PMC:PMC9144175 | DOI:10.3390/toxics10050266

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