Medicine (Baltimore). 2022 Nov 4;101(44):e31434. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000031434.
BACKGROUND: Several efforts have been made to improve the glass ionomer cements (GICs) properties with nanotechnology. Fluoride release in once of most beneficial properties of GICs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the fluoride release, recharge, and cytotoxicity in GICs reinforced with titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2N).
OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the fluoride release, recharge, and cytotoxicity in GICs reinforced with TiO2N.
METHODS: Four GICs, FUJI IX EXTRA (G1c), KETAC MOLAR (G2c), IONOFILL MOLAR (G3c), and FUJI IX (G4c) were combined with TiO2N (G1e, G2e, G3e, and G4e) and divided into blocks of 5-mm width and 1-mm thickness 10 each. A total of 80 samples were arranged as follows: GICs alone as negative control (n = 40) and GICs + TiO2N as experimental groups (n = 40). The fluoride release was determined for periods of 1, 2, 6, 10, 31, 90, 180, 240, and 300 days. On days 30 and 179, samples were recharged by submerging in 1 mL of 20,000 ppm sodium fluoride gel. Cytotoxic activity was carried out with gingival fibroblasts, using 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide cell viability assay.
RESULTS: The experimental groups obtained the highest and more constant fluoride released when compared to control groups. After the first recharge, experimental groups (G1e, G3e, and G4e) showed statistically significant results (P = .001, 0.010, and 0.001 respectively) enhancing their recharge ability regarding control groups. The second recharge showed better results in G1e concerning the rest of the groups. No cytotoxic activity was observed in all experimental groups, although significant differences were observed in G3e and G4e regarding control group.
CONCLUSION: The incorporation of TiO2N enhance the fluoride release in glass ionomers with a noncytotoxic effect on human gingival fibroblasts.