Sci Rep. 2023 Sep 2;13(1):14483. doi: 10.1038/s41598-023-41299-8.
This study deals with the entropy generation analysis of synthetic cilia using a ternary hybrid nanofluid (Al-Cu-Fe2O3/Blood) flow through an inclined channel. The objective of the current study is to investigate the effects of entropy generation optimization, heat, and mass transfer on ternary hybrid nanofluid passing through an inclined channel in the proximity of the induced magnetic field. The novelty of the current study is present in studying the combined effect of viscous dissipation, thermophoresis, Brownian motion, exponential heat sink/source, porous medium, endothermic-exothermic chemical reactions, and activation energy in the proximity of induced magnetic field is examined. The governing partial differential equations (PDEs) are transformed into the ordinary differential equations (ODEs) using appropriate transformations. Applying the low Reynolds number and the long-wavelength approximation, resultant ODEs are numerically solved using shooting technique via BVP5C in MATLAB. The velocity, temperature, concentration, and induced magnetism profiles are visually discussed and graphically analyzed for various fluid flow parameters. Graphical analysis of physical interest quantities like mass transfer rate, heat transfer rate, entropy generation optimization, and skin friction coefficient are also graphically discussed. The entropy generation improves for enhancing values of Reynolds number, solutal Grashof number, heat sink/source parameter, Brinkman number, magnetic Prandtl number, and endothermic-exothermic reaction parameter while the reverse effect is noticed for chemical reaction and induced magnetic field parameter. The findings of this study can be applied to enhance heat transfer efficiency in biomedical devices, optimizing cooling systems, designing efficient energy conversion processes, and spanning from renewable energy technologies to aerospace propulsion systems.