Saudi J Biol Sci. 2021 Dec 20. doi: 10.1016/j.sjbs.2021.12.032. Online ahead of print.


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has affected millions of individuals all over the world. In addition to the patients’ compelling indications, various sociodemographic characteristics were identified to influence infection complications. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of the aforementioned parameters on the dissemination of COVID-19 among residents of Saudi Arabia’s Riyadh region.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the Saudi Arabian province of Riyadh, a cross-sectional retrospective analysis of COVID-19 incidences, recoveries, and case-fatality ratio (CFR) was undertaken. The study was carried out by gathering daily COVID-19 records from the ministry of health’s official websites between October 2020 and September 2021. The influencing factors were obtained from the statistical authority. Using the SPSS IBM 25 software, the data was examined. The association between demographic factors as well as the presence of comorbidity on the COVID-19 outcome was determined using Spearman’s correlation and regression tests. P<0.05 was considered to indicate the significance of the results.

RESULTS: The data from the study indicated that the highest number of COVID-19 cases were recorded in June 2021, and peak recovery was observed in July 2021. The CFR declined progressively from October 2020 to just over 1, even when the cases peaked. A significant (p<0.05) correlation between diabetes and COVID-19 incidences was observed . The recovery rate had a significant (p<0.05) association with the literacy rate and those aged 14 – 49 years old. Presences of co-morbidities such as Dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, asthma, stroke and heart failure have negatively affected the recovery from COVID-19 in the population. The CFR is significantly (p< 0.05) associated with people over 60, hypertensive patients, and asthma patients. Regression analysis suggested that the risk of complications due to COVID-19 infection is more in males, people above 60 years age and those suffering from co-morbidities .

CONCLUSIONS: The findings of the study indicate an association between several of the characteristics studied, such as gender, age, and comorbidity, and the spread of infection, recovery, and mortality. To restrict the spread of COVID-19 and prevent its complications, effective measures are required to control the modifiable risk factors.

PMID:34955667 | PMC:PMC8686443 | DOI:10.1016/j.sjbs.2021.12.032


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