Epigenetic Manipulation Induced Production of Immunosuppressive Chromones and Cytochalasins from the Mangrove Endophytic Fungus Phomopsis asparagi DHS-48

Mar Drugs. 2022 Sep 29;20(10):616. doi: 10.3390/md20100616.

ABSTRACT

A mangrove endophytic fungus Phomopsis asparagi DHS-48 was found to be particularly productive with regard to the accumulation of substantial new compounds in our previous study. In order to explore its potential to produce more unobserved secondary metabolites, epigenetic manipulation was used on this fungus to activate cryptic or silent genes by using the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor sodium butyrate and the DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitor 5-azacytidine (5-Aza). Based on colony growth, dry biomass, HPLC, and 1H NMR analyses, the fungal chemical diversity profile was significantly changed compared with the control. Two new compounds, named phaseolorin J (1) and phomoparagin D (5), along with three known chromones (2-4) and six known cytochalasins (6-11), were isolated from the culture treated with sodium butyrate. Their structures, including their absolute configurations, were elucidated using a combination of detailed HRESIMS, NMR, and ECD and 13C NMR calculations. The immunosuppressive and cytotoxic activities of all isolated compounds were evaluated. Compounds 1 and 8 moderately inhibited the proliferation of ConA (concanavalin A)-induced T and LPS (lipopolysaccharide)-induced B murine spleen lymphocytes. Compound 5 exhibited significant in vitro cytotoxicity against the tested human cancer cell lines Hela and HepG2, which was comparative to the positive control adriamycin and fluorouracil. Our finding demonstrated that epigenetic manipulation should be an efficient strategy for the induction of new metabolites from mangrove endophytic fungi.

PMID:36286441 | PMC:PMC9605342 | DOI:10.3390/md20100616

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