Peanut skin having polyphenols as major constituents is a natural, abundant, and environmentally friendly potent biosorbent for aquatic pollutants such as heavy metals. Its natural potential can be enhanced several times by treating it with ionic liquids-the green solvents. This report presents a complete study on biosorption of divalent cadmium ions using ionic liquid-treated peanut skin. Initially, both peanut biomasses, skin and shells, were tested, and peanut skin was used for thorough experimentation because of its higher adsorption potential (q e values). Ionic liquids are highly green and designed solvents with vast adjustable striking features such as high thermal and chemical stability, insignificant vapor pressure, wide electrochemical assortment, non-volatility, non-flammability, less toxicity, and high recycling ability. Peanut skin after treatment with ionic liquids was characterized via FTIR, TGA, SEM, and XRD. The biosorption process was optimized with respect to time, temperature, metal ion concentrations, agitation speed, pH, and adsorbent dose. Data obtained were interpreted by kinetic, isothermal, and thermodynamic models. The biosorbent and ionic liquid both are regenerated and recycled up to three times, so cost effectiveness is a promising thing.