Sci Rep. 2022 Nov 18;12(1):19834. doi: 10.1038/s41598-022-22002-9.
A 23 factorial design was used to evaluate the influence of temperature, catalyst and time and esterification degree (DE) of pectin obtained from mango, orange and tangerine peels as well as tamarind seeds by using the acid hydrolysis method. The study showed that a high temperature positively influenced the percentage of pectin yield for the four second generation biomasses. Nevertheless, the temperature showed a greater influence in the solubility and diffusion of the acid solvent in the tamarind seed matrix, resulting a pectin recovery 32.9%. Concerning the %DE, the most statistically significant value observed was dependent on the type of biomass studied. The %DE and the nature of the pectin are determining factors in the pectin’s final use, in the present work the pectin extracted was used to produce furfural, a precursor of high value chemicals. The furfural production was achieved through alkaline hydrolysis and enhanced using the Maillard reaction, reaching a maximum concentration of 71.8 g/L which represents a 42.1% increase from the alkaline hydrolysis.