Exogenous Proline Enhances Systemic Defense against Salt Stress in Celery by Regulating Photosystem, Phenolic Compounds, and Antioxidant System

Plants (Basel). 2023 Feb 17;12(4):928. doi: 10.3390/plants12040928.


This study aimed to explore how exogenous proline induces salinity tolerance in celery. We analyzed the effects of foliar spraying with 0.3 mM proline on celery growth, photosystem, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant system under salt stress (100 mM NaCl), using no salt stress and no proline spraying as control. The results showed that proline-treated plants exhibited a significant increase in plant biomass due to improved growth physiology, supported by gas exchange parameters, chlorophyll fluorescence, and Calvin cycle enzyme activity (Ketosasaccharide-1,5-diphosphate carboxylase and Fructose-1,6-diphosphate aldolase) results. Also, proline spraying significantly suppressed the increase in relative conductivity and malondialdehyde content caused by salt stress, suggesting a reduction in biological membrane damage. Moreover, salt stress resulted in hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anions and 4-coumaric acid accumulation in celery, and their contents were reduced after foliar spraying of proline. Furthermore, proline increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase) and the content of non-enzymatic antioxidants (reduced ascorbic acid, glutathione, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, total phenolic acids, and total flavonoids). Additionally, proline increased the activity of key enzymes (ascorbate oxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and dehydroascorbate reductase) in the ascorbic acid-glutathione cycle, activating it to counteract salt stress. In summary, exogenous proline promoted celery growth under salt stress, enhanced photosynthesis, increased total phenolic acid and flavonoid contents, and improved antioxidant capacity, thereby improving salt tolerance in celery.

PMID:36840277 | PMC:PMC9963348 | DOI:10.3390/plants12040928


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