Sci Rep. 2022 Dec 23;12(1):22193. doi: 10.1038/s41598-022-26736-4.
This paper interweaved scaffolds with poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) and poly(lactic acid)/Walnut shell/hydroxypatite (PLA/WS/HA) composites by using fused filament fabrication technology, although there was a huge difference in thermal property term between PLA and PEEK. In order to keep mechanical properties of PEEK scaffold and remedy the stress loss produced by pores, PLA/WS/HA composites were used to fill the pores with gradient form outside-in (0.4-0.8 mm, 0.6-1.0 mm, 0.8-1.2 mm and 1.6-2.0 mm). The thermal stability, tensile and compression properties, tensile fracture surface morphology, cytotoxicity and in vivo experiment were investigated. The results showed: the scaffolds were intact without any flashes and surface destruction, and kept a well thermal stability. Compared with the PEEK porous scaffolds, the tensile fracture stress and strain, compression yield stress and strain of interweaved scaffolds were dramatically enhanced by 24.1%, 438%, 359.1% and 921.2%, respectively, and they climbed to the climax at 8 wt% of WS. In vivo experiment showed that the degradation of PLA/WS/HA composites synchronized with the adhesion, proliferation and ingrowth of bone cells, keeping the stable biomechanical properties of interweaved scaffolds. Those experiments showed that interweaved PEEK-PLA/WS/HA scaffolds had the potential to be used as bone implant in tissue engineering.