Int J Nanomedicine. 2023 Apr 19;18:2019-2035. doi: 10.2147/IJN.S397359. eCollection 2023.
BACKGROUND: Despite the inherent regenerative ability of bone, large bone defect regeneration remains a major clinical challenge for orthopedic surgery. Therapeutic strategies medicated by M2 phenotypic macrophages or M2 macrophage inducer have been widely used to promote tissue remodeling. In this study, ultrasound-responsive bioactive microdroplets (MDs) encapsulated with bioactive molecule interleukin-4 (IL4, hereafter designated MDs-IL4) were fabricated to regulate macrophage polarization and potentiate the osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The MTT assay, live and dead staining, and phalloidin/DAPI dual staining were used to evaluate biocompatibility in vitro. H&E staining was used to evaluate biocompatibility in vivo. Inflammatory macrophages were further induced via lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation to mimic the pro-inflammatory condition. The immunoregulatory role of the MDs-IL4 was tested via macrophage phenotypic marker gene expression, pro-inflammatory cytokine level, cell morphological analysis, and immunofluorescence staining, etc. The immune-osteogenic response of hBMSCs via macrophages and hBMSCs interactions was further investigated in vitro.
RESULTS: The bioactive MDs-IL4 scaffold showed good cytocompatibility in RAW 264.7 macrophages and hBMSCs. The results confirmed that the bioactive MDs-IL4 scaffold could reduce inflammatory phenotypic macrophages, as evidenced by changing in morphological features, reduction in pro-inflammatory marker gene expression, increase of M2 phenotypic marker genes, and inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion. Additionally, our results indicate that the bioactive MDs-IL4 could significantly enhance the osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs via its potential immunomodulatory properties.
CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate that the bioactive MDs-IL4 scaffold could be used as novel carrier system for other pro-osteogenic molecules, thus having potential applications in bone tissue regeneration.
PMID:37155503 | PMC:PMC10122853 | DOI:10.2147/IJN.S397359