Favorable vaccine-induced SARS-CoV-2 specific T cell response profile in patients undergoing immune-modifying therapies

J Clin Invest. 2022 May 10:e159500. doi: 10.1172/JCI159500. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing immune-modifying therapies demonstrate a reduced humoral response after COVID-19 vaccination, but we lack a proper evaluation of the impact of such therapies on vaccine-induced T cell responses.

METHODS: We longitudinally characterized humoral and Spike-specific T cell responses in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients who are on antimetabolite therapy (azathioprine or methotrexate), TNF inhibitors and/or other biologic treatment (anti-integrin or anti-p40) for up to 6 months after completing two-dose COVID-19 mRNA vaccination.

RESULTS: We demonstrated that a Spike-specific T cell response is not only induced in treated IBD patients at levels similar to healthy individuals, but also sustained at higher magnitude for up to 6 months after vaccination, particularly in those treated with TNF inhibitor therapy. Furthermore, the Spike-specific T cell response in these patients is mainly preserved against mutations present in SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.529 (Omicron) and characterized by a Th1/IL-10 cytokine profile.

CONCLUSION: Despite the humoral response defects, patients under immune-modifying therapies demonstrated a favorable profile of vaccine-induced T cell responses that might still provide a layer of COVID-19 protection.

FUNDING: This study was funded by the National Centre for Infectious Diseases NCID Catalyst Grant (FY2021ES) and the National Research Fund Competitive Research Programme (NRF-CRP25-2020-0003). The funders played no role in the design, conduct, or reporting of this study.

PMID:35536644 | DOI:10.1172/JCI159500

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