This contribution firstly proposed the concept of annual average power generation hours and analyzed per capita energy consumption, carbon emission, and the human development index from a macro perspective. On this basis, we compared the average household electrical energy consumption of urban and rural residents based on the data from CGSS-2015 from a micro perspective. The results show the positive correlation between carbon emissions per capita and the human development index and China’s regional imbalance characteristics between household electricity consumption and renewable energy distribution. Therefore, the distributed energy supply system is proposed as an effective complement to centralized power generation systems and is the key to synergizing human development and carbon emissions in China. Moreover, we analyzed the characteristics of distributed energy supply systems in the context of existing energy supply systems, pointing out the need to fully use solar energy and natural gas. Finally, two types of typical distributed energy supply systems are proposed for satisfying the household energy requirements in remote or rural areas of western and the eastern or coastal areas of China, respectively. Two typical distributed energy systems integrate high-efficiency energy conversion, storage, and transfer devices such as electric heat pumps, photovoltaic thermal, heat and electricity storage, and fuel cells.