To increase the stability of cerium scavengers, we doped cerium oxide on mesoporous silica powders for the application of an oxidative stabilizer. The oxidation-reduction reaction involving hydroxyl radicals (•OH) is investigated with Fenton’s test using eight types of Ce(IV)-mobile compositions of matter 41 (MCM-41) and Ce(III)-MCM-41 powder samples. As confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the relative amount of Ce3+ inside the mesoporous samples decreases with the increasing time of treatment using the Fenton solution, whereas that of Ce4+ increases. 29Si CP-MAS NMR shows that the condensation of the siloxane bond varies according to the treating time up to 120 h. The mesoporous structure is also analyzed using synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering and nitrogen adsorption. Further treatment with propane sulfonic acid ensured that the ionic conductivity of the sulfonated mesoporous silica did not decrease. The surface-modified mesoporous silica was incorporated in sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) multiblock membranes. The sulfonated mesoporous silica could overcome the drawbacks of transition metal scavengers, such as a drop in ionic conductivity. Through experiments, we determined that the Ce-doped sulfonated mesoporous silica/sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) composite membranes exhibit high oxidation stability when exposed to hydrogen peroxide and even higher proton conductivity than Nafion at a relative humidity over 60%.