Diam Relat Mater. 2022 Aug;127:109149. doi: 10.1016/j.diamond.2022.109149. Epub 2022 Jun 3.
The progressive and fatal outbreak of some diseases such as cancer and coronavirus necessitates using advanced materials to bring such devastating illnesses under control. In this study, graphene oxide (GO) is decorated by superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) (GO/SPION) as well as polyethylene glycol functionalized SPION (GO/SPION@PEG), and chitosan functionalized SPION (GO/SPION@CS). Field emission scanning electron microscopic (FESEM) images show the formation of high density uniformly distributed SPION nanoparticles on the surface of GO sheets. The structural and chemical composition of nanostructures is confirmed by X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The saturation magnetization of GO/SPION, GO/SPION@PEG and GO- SPION@CS are found to be 20, 19 and 8 emu/g using vibrating sample magnetometer. Specific absorption rate (SAR) values of 305, 283, and 199 W/g and corresponding intrinsic loss power (ILP) values of 9.4, 8.7, and 6.2 nHm2kg-1 are achieved for GO/SPION, GO/SPION@PEG and GO/SPION@CS, respectively. The In vitro cytotoxicity assay indicates higher than 70% cell viability for all nanostructures at 100, 300, and 500 ppm after 24 and 72 h. Additionally, cancerous cell (EJ138 human bladder carcinoma) ablation is observed using functionalized GO/SPION under applied magnetic field. More than 50% cancerous cell death has been achieved for GO/SPION@PEG at 300 ppm concentration. Furthermore, Surrogate virus neutralization test is applied to investigate neutralizing property of the synthesized nanostructures through analysis of SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain and human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 binding. The highest level of SARS-CoV-2 virus inhibition is related to GO/SPION@CS (86%) due to the synergistic exploitation of GO and chitosan. Thus, GO/SPION and GO/SPION@PEG with higher SAR and ILP values could be beneficial for cancer treatment, while GO/SPION@CS with higher virus suppression has potential to use against coronaviruses. Thus, the developed nanocomposites have a potential in the efficient treatment of cancer and coronavirus.