Front Mol Biosci. 2022 May 9;9:850778. doi: 10.3389/fmolb.2022.850778. eCollection 2022.
Galactose, an important carbohydrate nutrient, is involved in several types of cellular metabolism, participating in physiological activities such as glycosaminoglycan (GAG) synthesis, glycosylation, and intercellular recognition. The regulatory effects of galactose on osteoarthritis have attracted increased attention. In this study, in vitro cell models of ATDC5 and chondrocytes were prepared and cultured with different concentrations of galactose to evaluate its capacity on chondrogenesis and cartilage matrix formation. The cell proliferation assay demonstrated that galactose was nontoxic to both ATDC5 cells and chondrocytes. RT-PCR and immunofluorescence staining indicated that the gene expressions of cartilage matrix type II collagen and aggrecan were significantly upregulated with increasing galactose concentration and the expression and accumulation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) protein. Overall, these results indicated that a galactose concentration below 8 mM exhibited the best effect on promoting chondrogenesis, which entitles galactose as having considerable potential for cartilage repair and regeneration.