Front Plant Sci. 2023 Aug 24;14:1221780. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2023.1221780. eCollection 2023.
The current study aimed to address the response of soybean (Glycine max) plants to biofertilization and selenium supplementation treatments under galaxolide contamination of soil. In this regard, a pot experiment was carried out where the soybean plants were treated with the plant growth-promoting Actinobacteria (Actinobacterium sp.) as a biofertilizer (PGPB treatment) and/or selenium nanoparticles (Se treatment; 25 mg L-1) under two non-polluted and galaxolide-polluted soils (250 mg galaxolide per kg of soil) to assess the modifications in some plant physiological and biochemical traits. Although higher accumulation of oxidative biomarkers, including hydrogen peroxide (+180%), malondialdehyde (+163%), and protein oxidation (+125%), indicating oxidative stress in galaxolide-contaminated plants, an apparent decline in their contents was observed in response to biofertilization/supplementation treatments in contaminated soil, especially. It was mainly related to the higher detoxification of ROS in PGPB- and Se-treated plants under galaxolide-induced oxidative stress, in which the direct ROS-scavenging enzymes (+44 -179%), enzymatic (+34 – 293%) and non-enzymatic (+35 – 98%) components of the ascorbate-glutathione pathway, and antioxidant molecules (+38 – 370%) were more activated than in control plants. In addition, a higher accumulation of detoxification activity markers, including phytochelatins (+32%) and metallothioneins (+79%), were found in the combined treatments (PGPB+Se) under galaxolide contamination. Moreover, combined treatment with PGPB and Se ameliorated the levels of chlorophyll a content (+58%), stomatal conductance (+57%), the maximum efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) (+36%), and photorespiratory metabolism (including +99% in glycolate oxidase and +54% in hydroxypyruvate reductase activity) in leaves under galaxolide contamination, which resulted in higher photosynthesis capacity (+36%) and biomass production (+74%) in galaxolide-stressed plants as compared to control group. In conclusion, the application of beneficial Actinobacteria and selenium nanoparticles as biofertilization/supplementation is expected to be useful for improving plant toleration and adaptation against galaxolide contamination.