Gallium(III)- and Indium(III)-Containing Ionic Liquids as Highly Active Catalysts in Organic Synthesis

Molecules. 2023 Feb 18;28(4):1955. doi: 10.3390/molecules28041955.


The chemical industry still requires development of environmentally friendly processes. Acid-catalysed chemical processes may cause environmental problems. Urgent need to replace conventional acids has forced the search for sustainable alternatives. Metal-containing ionic liquids have drawn considerable attention from scientists for many years. These compounds may exhibit very high Lewis acidity, which is usually dependent on the composition of the ionic liquid with the particular content of metal salt. Therefore, metal-containing ionic liquids have found a lot of applications and are successfully employed as catalysts, co-catalysts or reaction media in various fields of chemistry, especially in organic chemistry. Gallium(III)- and indium(III)-containing ionic liquids help to transfer the remarkable activity of metal salts into even more active and easier-to-handle forms of ionic liquids. This review highlights the wide range of possible applications and the high potential of metal-containing ionic liquids with special focus on Ga(III) and In(III), which may help to outline the framework for further development of the presented research topic and synthesis of new representatives of this group of compounds.

PMID:36838943 | PMC:PMC9967191 | DOI:10.3390/molecules28041955


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