Microb Cell Fact. 2022 Nov 11;21(1):236. doi: 10.1186/s12934-022-01952-9.
Bacteriocins are ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides, that either kill target bacteria or inhibit their growth. Bacteriocins are used in food preservation and are of increasing interest as potential alternatives to conventional antibiotics. In the present study, we show that Lactococcus petauri B1726, a strain isolated from fermented balsam pear, produces a heat-stable and protease-sensitive compound. Following genome sequencing, a gene cluster for production of a class IId bacteriocin was identified consisting of garQ (encoding for the bacteriocin garvicin Q), garI (for a putative immunity protein), garC, and garD (putative transporter proteins). Growth conditions were optimized for increased bacteriocin activity in supernatants of L. petauri B1726 and purification and mass spectrometry identified the compound as garvicin Q. Further experiments suggest that garvicin Q adsorbs to biomass of various susceptible and insusceptible bacteria and support the hypothesis that garvicin Q requires a mannose-family phosphotransferase system (PTSMan) as receptor to kill target bacteria by disruption of membrane integrity. Heterologous expression of a synthetic garQICD operon was established in Corynebacterium glutamicum demonstrating that genes garQICD are responsible for biosynthesis and secretion of garvicin Q. Moreover, production of garvicin Q by the recombinant C. glutamicum strain was improved by using a defined medium yet product levels were still considerably lower than with the natural L. petauri B1726 producer strain.Collectively, our data identifies the genetic basis for production of the bacteriocin garvicin Q by L. petauri B1726 and provides insights into the receptor and mode of action of garvicin Q. Moreover, we successfully performed first attempts towards biotechnological production of this interesting bacteriocin using natural and heterologous hosts.