J Biomed Opt. 2022 Nov;27(11). doi: 10.1117/1.JBO.27.11.117001.
SignificanceInsertable optical continuous glucose monitors (CGMs) with wearable readers are a strong option for monitoring individuals with diabetes. However, a fully insertable CGM requires a small form factor while still delivering sufficient signal to be read through tissue by an external device. Previous work has suggested that a multimodal repeating unit (barcode) approach may meet these requirements, but the biosensor geometry must be optimized to meet performance criteria.AimThis work details in silico trials conducted to evaluate the geometry of a fully insertable multimodal optical biosensor with respect to both optical output and species diffusion in vivo.ApproachMonte Carlo modeling is used to evaluate the luminescent output of three presupposed biosensor designs based on size constraints for an injectable and logical placement of the bar code compartments. Specifically, the sensitivity of the luminescent output to displacement of the biosensor in the X and Y directions, overall size of the selected design, and size of an individual repeating unit are analyzed. Further, an experimentally validated multiphysics model is used to evaluate the diffusion and reaction of glucose and oxygen within the biosensor to estimate the occurrence of chemical crosstalk between the assay components.ResultsA stacked cylinder multimodal biosensor 4.4 mm in length with repeating units 0.36 mm in length was found to yield a greater luminescent output than the current “barcode” biosensor design. In addition, it was found that a biosensor with enzymatic elements does not significantly deplete glucose locally and thus does not impact the diffusion profile of glucose in adjacent compartments containing nonenzymatic assays.ConclusionsComputational modeling was used to design the geometry of a multimodal, insertable, and optical CGM to ensure that the optical output and chemical diffusion profile are sufficient for this device to function in vivo.