Global distribution of soapberries (Sapindus L.) habitats under current and future climate scenarios

Sci Rep. 2021 Oct 5;11(1):19740. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-98389-8.

ABSTRACT

Sapindus (Sapindus L.) is a widely distributed economically important tree genus that provides biodiesel, biomedical and biochemical products. However, with climate change, deforestation, and economic development, the diversity of Sapindus germplasms may face the risk of destruction. Therefore, utilising historical environmental data and future climate projections from the BCC-CSM2-MR global climate database, we simulated the current and future global distributions of suitable habitats for Sapindus using a Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) model. The estimated ecological thresholds for critical environmental factors were: a minimum temperature of 0-20 °C in the coldest month, soil moisture levels of 40-140 mm, a mean temperature of 2-25 °C in the driest quarter, a mean temperature of 19-28 °C in the wettest quarter, and a soil pH of 5.6-7.6. The total suitable habitat area was 6059.97 × 104 km2, which was unevenly distributed across six continents. As greenhouse gas emissions increased over time, the area of suitable habitats contracted in lower latitudes and expanded in higher latitudes. Consequently, surveys and conservation should be prioritised in southern hemisphere areas which are in danger of becoming unsuitable. In contrast, other areas in northern and central America, China, and India can be used for conservation and large-scale cultivation in the future.

PMID:34611181 | DOI:10.1038/s41598-021-98389-8

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