Glycerol based carbon sulfonic acid catalyzed synthesis, in silico studies and in vitro biological evaluation of isonicotinohydrazide derivatives as potent antimicrobial and anti-tubercular agents

Heliyon. 2023 Jan 26;9(2):e13226. doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2023.e13226. eCollection 2023 Feb.


The present pathway involves synthesis of isonicotinohydrazide derivatives using isoniazid and diversely substituted aldehydes in the presence of EtOH and catalytic amount of glycerol based carbon sulfonic acid catalyst. The developed pathway has so many merits like excellent yields (91-98%), short reaction time (4-10 min), easy reaction set up, no need of column chromatography, large substrate scope, easily recyclable and reusable catalyst. The synthesized compounds were screened for antimicrobial and anti-tubercular activity and it was observed that compounds possessed high biological potency against the Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial and fungal strains. Regarding anti-tubercular activity, compound 3m exhibited high % inhibition against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37RV strain. Based on the outcome of in vitro studies, all the synthesized compounds were docked against E. coli (1KZN), C. albicans (1IYL), and M. tuberculosis H 37 Rv strain (2NSD). The synthesized derivatives were docked within the binding site of 1KZN, and 1IYL. However, with 2NSD, apart from 3h, all the derivatives displayed interaction within the binding cavity of the protein. All the crucial interactions with Asn46, Asp73, and Arg136 in 1KZN, His227, Leu451 in 1IYL, and Tyr158 in 2NSD were witnessed in the top-scored docked candidates. Molecular docking studies revealed the importance of the substitution at R position on isonicotinohydrazide scaffold. The nitrogen atoms of hydrazide moiety were involved in forming hydrogen bonding with the active site amino acids, and the substitution at the R position occupy the hydrophobic position in the binding pocket. Also, the functional groups present on the substituted R position were involved in forming hydrogen bonding with the crucial active site residues.

PMID:36785822 | PMC:PMC9918772 | DOI:10.1016/j.heliyon.2023.e13226


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