The bioimaging of cancer cells by the specific targeting of overexpressed biomarkers is an approach that holds great promise in the identification of selective diagnostic tools. Tumor-associated human carbonic anhydrase (hCA) isoforms IX and XII have been considered so far as well-defined biomarkers, with their expression correlating with cancer progression and aggressiveness. Therefore, the availability of highly performant fluorescent tools tailored for their targeting and able to efficiently visualize such key targets is in high demand. We report here on the design and synthesis of a kind of quantum dot (QD)-based fluorescent glyconanoprobe coated with a binary mixture of ligands, which, according to the structure of the terminal domains, impart specific property sets to the fluorescent probe. Specifically, monosaccharide residues ensured the dispersibility in the biological medium, CA inhibitor residues provided specific targeting of membrane-anchored hCA IX overexpressed on bladder cancer cells, and the quantum dots imparted the optical/fluorescence properties.