Front Psychiatry. 2022 Oct 17;13:1027907. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2022.1027907. eCollection 2022.
BACKGROUND: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder characterized by bradykinesia, tremor, and rigidity among other symptoms. With a 70% cumulative prevalence of dementia in PD, cognitive impairment and neuropsychiatric symptoms are frequent.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, we looked at anatomical brain differences between groups of patients and controls. A total of 138 people with PD were compared to 64 age-matched healthy people using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). VBM is a fully automated technique that allows for the identification of regional differences in gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) allowing for an objective comparison of brains of different groups of people. We used statistical parametric mapping for image processing and statistical analysis.
RESULTS: In comparison to controls, PD patients had lower GM volumes in the left middle cingulate, left lingual gyrus, right calcarine and left fusiform gyrus, also PD patients indicated lower WM volumes in the right middle cingulate, left lingual gyrus, right calcarine, and left inferior occipital gyrus. Moreover, PD patients group demonstrated higher CSF in the left caudate compared to the controls.
CONCLUSION: Physical fragility and cognitive impairments in PD may be detected more easily if anatomical abnormalities to the cingulate gyrus, occipital lobe and the level of CSF in the caudate are identified. Thus, our findings shed light on the role of the brain in PD and may aid in a better understanding of the events that occur in PD patients.