iScience. 2022 Dec 28;26(1):105900. doi: 10.1016/j.isci.2022.105900. eCollection 2023 Jan 20.
Energy storage can accelerate the decarbonization of the electrical grid. As useful energy storage technologies are developed, investors and manufacturers want to determine the needs for storage in a wide range of scenarios. In this study, we introduce a strategy for identifying the types of storage that will be most valuable to the grid given specific generation and load profiles. This method estimates the annual minimum number of cycles for each storage, how long each holds the charge, and charging and discharging rates for an idealized system, giving insight into tomorrow’s complex systems. We demonstrate the proposed hierarchical approach and quantify how many fewer times wind-driven grids cycle the storage at night compared with solar-driven grids, as well as how winter-dominant wind generation and latitude-tilt solar may reduce the need for seasonal storage. Also, we quantify how higher discharging rates are required for energy storage products that cycle most frequently.