An efficient and eco-friendly process for lignocellulosic biomass fractionation is essential for the production of high value-added bioproducts from biomass. The present work aimed to obtain cellulose-rich materials from the wood of an invasive tree species (Acacia dealbata) using an appropriate choice of ionic liquids (ILs) and deep eutectic solvents (DESs), and of the processing conditions, for the subsequent production of cationic wood-based polyelectrolytes. In the pretreatment step, the 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium methyl sulfate (IL) + H2O and choline chloride + imidazole (DES) systems demonstrated a remarkable ability to remove lignin from acacia, reaching up to 92.4 and 90.2% of delignification, respectively. However, the DES pretreatment revealed to be more selective for lignin removal with lower cellulose losses (less than 15%) than the IL treatment (up to 30%) and less cellulose depolymerization. The hemicellulose was also removed but in a lesser extent with the DES treatment. Both systems could provide treated materials with a very high cellulose content (≥89%). Afterwards, cationic polyelectrolytes having a considerable content of quaternary ammonium groups (up to 3.6 mmol g-1) were obtained directly from the IL- and DES-pretreated woods. The treated woods, when used as raw materials for cationization reaction, allow to synthesize water-soluble polyelectrolytes with potential to be applied in wastewater treatment, pharmaceutical or cosmetic products.