Highly efficient and simultaneous catalytic reduction of multiple toxic dyes and nitrophenols waste water using highly active bimetallic PdO-NiO nanocomposite

Sci Rep. 2021 Nov 22;11(1):22699. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-01989-7.

ABSTRACT

Azo dyes and nitrophenols have been widely used in the various industry which are highly toxic and affecting the photosynthetic cycle of aquatic organism. The industry disposals increase the accumulation of azo compounds in the environment. In the present study, we synthesized the low cost, PdO-doped NiO hetero-mixture via simple hydrothermal combined calcination process. The morphology results proved that, the spherical PdO nanoparticles are evenly doped with NiO nanoparticles. The band gap values of metal oxides NiO, PdO and PdO-NiO composite were found to be 4.05 eV, 3.84 eV and 4.24 eV, respectively. The high optical bandgap (Eg) value for composite suggests that the PdO interface and NiO interface are closely combined in the composite. The catalytic activity of the PdO-NiO was analyzed for the reduction of different toxic azo compounds namely, 4-nitrophenol (NP), 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (TNP), methylene blue (MB), rhodamine B (RhB) and methyl orange (MO) separately and their mixture with the presence of a NaBH4. For the first time, the large volume of the toxic azo compounds was reduced into non-toxic compounds with high reduction rate. The proposed PdO-NiO catalyst exhibit excellent rate constant 0.1667, 0.0997, 0.0686 min-1 for NP, DNP and TNT and 0.099, 0.0416 and 0.0896 min-1 for MB, RhB and MO dyes respectively which is higher rate constant than the previously reported catalysts. Mainly, PdO-NiO completes the reduction of mixture of azo compounds within 8 min. Further, PdO-NiO exhibit stable reduction rate of azo compounds over five cycles with no significant loss. Hence, the proposed low cost and high efficient PdO-NiO catalyst could be the promising catalyst for degradation of azo compounds.

PMID:34811421 | DOI:10.1038/s41598-021-01989-7

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