J Neurosurg Case Lessons. 2022 Oct 17;4(16):CASE22294. doi: 10.3171/CASE22294. Print 2022 Oct 17.
BACKGROUND: Pediatric arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) and pial/dural arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) are rare but life-threatening complications that can lead to congestive heart failure and hemorrhagic stroke in newborns and pediatric patients. The pronounced shunting in these conditions is associated with early complications and necessitates aggressive surgical management. Here, the authors describe endovascular treatment of an atypical cerebral pial AVF in a newborn.
OBSERVATIONS: This AVF formed direct communication between a major cerebral artery (basilar artery) and a large draining vein (dilated deep cerebral vein). The authors performed earlier subtotal embolization of the AVF using 0.020-inch coils, which led to progressive thrombosis of the fistula with restoration of normal arterial blood flow. The patient was discharged 18 days after surgery, examination at 1.5 and 6 months showed magnetic resonance imaging signs of blood flow absence through the fistula and satisfactory condition of the infant without physical and mental developmental delay.
LESSONS: Subtotal coiling of a high-flow pial AVF in a newborn can result in a good clinical outcome.