Int J Bioprint. 2022 Nov 22;9(1):646. doi: 10.18063/ijb.v9i1.646. eCollection 2023.
Scaffold-based approach is a developed strategy in biomanufacturing, which is based on the use of temporary scaffold that performs as a house of implanted cells for their attachment, proliferation, and differentiation. This strategy strongly depends on both materials and manufacturing processes. However, it is very difficult to meet all the requirements, such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, mechanical strength, and promotion of cell-adhesion, using only single material. At present, no single bioprinting technique can meet the requirements for tissue regeneration of all scales. Thus, multi-material and mixing-material scaffolds have been widely investigated. Challenges in terms of resolution, uniform cell distribution, and tissue formation are still the obstacles in the development of bioprinting technique. Hybrid bioprinting techniques have been developed to print scaffolds with improved properties in both mechanical and biological aspects for broad biomedical engineering applications. In this review, we introduce the basic multi-head bioprinters, semi-hybrid and fully-hybrid biomanufacturing systems, highlighting the modifications, the improved properties and the effect on the complex tissue regeneration applications.