Myasthenia gravis is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by autoantibody-mediated interference of signal transmission across the neuromuscular junction. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) involving 1,873 patients diagnosed with acetylcholine receptor antibody-positive myasthenia gravis and 36,370 healthy individuals to identify disease-associated genetic risk loci. Replication of the discovered loci was attempted in an independent cohort from the UK Biobank. We also performed a transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS) using expression data from skeletal muscle, whole blood, and tibial nerve to test the effects of disease-associated polymorphisms on gene expression. We discovered two signals in the genes encoding acetylcholine receptor subunits that are the most common antigenic target of the autoantibodies: a GWAS signal within the cholinergic receptor nicotinic alpha 1 subunit (CHRNA1) gene and a TWAS association with the cholinergic receptor nicotinic beta 1 subunit (CHRNB1) gene in normal skeletal muscle. Two other loci were discovered on 10p14 and 11q21, and the previous association signals at PTPN22, HLA-DQA1/HLA-B, and TNFRSF11A were confirmed. Subgroup analyses demonstrate that early- and late-onset cases have different genetic risk factors. Genetic correlation analysis confirmed a genetic link between myasthenia gravis and other autoimmune diseases, such as hypothyroidism, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and type 1 diabetes. Finally, we applied Priority Index analysis to identify potentially druggable genes/proteins and pathways. This study provides insight into the genetic architecture underlying myasthenia gravis and demonstrates that genetic factors within the loci encoding acetylcholine receptor subunits contribute to its pathogenesis.