Identification of the molecular characteristics of Bacillus anthracis (1982-2020) isolates in East Indonesia using multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis

Vet World. 2022 Apr;15(4):953-961. doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2022.953-961. Epub 2022 Apr 16.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Anthrax is one of the endemic strategic diseases in East Indonesia, particularly in the provinces of South Sulawesi, West Sulawesi, Gorontalo, East Nusa Tenggara, and West Nusa Tenggara. Anthrax is an important disease due to its zoonotic and economic impact on the livestock industry. This study aimed to identify the molecular characteristics of Bacillus anthracis in East Indonesia using multilocus variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA).

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Isolates were obtained from an investigation of anthrax outbreaks in five provinces of East Indonesia from 1982 to 2020. Conventional polymerase chain reaction for B. anthracis was used to identify MLVA-8. Deoxyribonucleic acid sequencing analysis was based on MLVA-8 primers for VNTR identification of the phylogenetic relationship among 24 isolates of B. anthracis obtained from 17 distinct districts/cities in East Indonesia. Tandem Repeats Finder was used for VNTR identification, and Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis X was used to construct phylogenetic analysis.

RESULTS: In this study, 24 isolates were classified as genotype or lineage A. There were four subgroups of B. anthracis circulating in East Indonesia based on eight molecular marker loci sequence results.

CONCLUSION: The findings of this study show that MLVA-8 typing might be useful as a subtyping tool for the epidemiological investigation of identical genotypes and low genetic diversity of B. anthracis. No other lineage of B. anthracis was circulating in East Indonesia. Other molecular methods are needed, such as extended MLVA, whole-genome sequencing, and canonical single-nucleotide polymorphism, for a more precise study of B. anthracis genetic diversity.

PMID:35698492 | PMC:PMC9178602 | DOI:10.14202/vetworld.2022.953-961

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