Imaging the stability of chronic electrical microstimulation using electrodes coated with PEDOT/CNT and iridium oxide

iScience. 2022 Jun 6;25(7):104539. doi: 10.1016/j.isci.2022.104539. eCollection 2022 Jul 15.

ABSTRACT

Chronic microstimulation is faced with challenges that require an additional understanding of stability and safety. We implanted silicon arrays coated with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT)/Carbon Nanotubes (CNT), or PCand IrOx into the cortex of GCaMP6s mice and electrically stimulated them for up to 12 weeks. We quantified neuronal responses to stimulation using two-photon imaging and mesoscale fluorescence microscopy and characterized electrode performance over time. We observed dynamic changes in stimulation stability over time and a significant advantage in energy efficiency using PC coated electrodes over IrOx coated electrodes. In a subset of mice, we observed abnormal ictal cortical responses or cortical spreading depression using stimulation parameters commonly used in intracortical stimulation applications, suggesting the need to investigate the potential neuronal damage and redefine the stimulation safety limit. This study not only revealed the dynamic changes in stimulation efficiency after implantation but also reiterates the potential for PC as a high-efficiency material in chronic neuromodulation.

PMID:35769881 | PMC:PMC9234710 | DOI:10.1016/j.isci.2022.104539

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