Immobilization of Ni(ii) complex on the surface of mesoporous modified-KIT-6 as a new, reusable and highly efficient nanocatalyst for the synthesis of tetrazole and pyranopyrazole derivatives

RSC Adv. 2023 Apr 24;13(18):12572-12588. doi: 10.1039/d2ra08269a. eCollection 2023 Apr 17.


In this paper, KIT-6@SMTU@Ni was successfully synthesized via a new method of Ni(ii) complex stabilization on modified mesoporous KIT-6, as a novel and green heterogeneous catalyst. The obtained catalyst (KIT-6@SMTU@Ni) was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) calculation, X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray mapping, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) techniques and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). After complete characterization of the catalyst, it was successfully used for the synthesis of 5-substituted 1H-tetrazoles and pyranopyrazoles. Moreover, tetrazoles were synthesized from benzonitrile derivatives and sodium azide (NaN3). All tetrazole products were synthesized with high TON, TOF and excellent yields (88-98%) in a reasonable time (0.13-8 h), demonstrating the efficiency and practicality of the KIT-6@SMTU@Ni catalyst. Furthermore, pyranopyrazoles were prepared through the condensation reaction of benzaldehyde derivatives with malononitrile, hydrazine hydrate and ethyl acetoacetate with high TON, TOF and excellent yields (87-98%) at appropriate times (2-10.5 h). KIT-6@SMTU@Ni could be reused for five runs without any re-activation. Significantly, this plotted protocol has prominent benefits, such as applying green solvents, the use of commercially available and low-cost materials, excellent separation and reusability of the catalyst, short reaction time, high yield of products and a facile work-up.

PMID:37101952 | PMC:PMC10123498 | DOI:10.1039/d2ra08269a


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